Experimental Stress Characterization and Numerical Simulation for Copper Pumping Analysis of Through Silicon Vias

Citation: 
Liu, X., Thadesar, P. A., Taylor, C. L., Kunz, M., Tamura, N., Bakir, M. S., and Sitaraman, S. K., “Experimental Stress Characterization and Numerical Simulation for Copper Pumping Analysis of Through Silicon Vias,” IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 6, No. 7, July 2016, pp. 993-999.
Abstract: 
In this paper, a 3-D thermomechanical model of through-silicon vias (TSVs) has been analyzed and verified with in situ microscale strain measurements by synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction. Thereafter, a comprehensive stress/strain analysis on copper pumping and back-end-of-line (BEOL) cracking issues has been carried out. In addition, a design-of-experimentsbased approach has been used to understand the effect of various parameters on copper pumping and BEOL stress. The results show that the smaller TSV diameter and thinner silicon die help reduce the copper pumping and thus mitigate BEOL stress
Link to Paper: 
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=7389346